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|The more common study designs in Epidemiology include:
Cohort Study - gold standard when exploring the association between a risk factor or participation in a health program, and health status outcomes or health events.
Case-Control Study - more commonly used, less expensive, when outcome of interest is rare, and a random sample from population would yield too few cases. Involves a retrospective assessment of differential exposure between 2 comparison groups.
Data from Entire Population - considered cross-sectional since collection or sampling of the exposure and outcome info is at the same point in time. Considered prevalence data. A relationship between exposure and outcome is the ratio of 2 prevalence rates, or relative prevalence.
Ecologic Designs - Data for exposure and disease are used in aggregated form and cannot be linked at the individual level.